Romans Chapter 9

November 29, 2012

This Preaching in Shorts Bible study is on Romans. Each chapter is read verse by verse with the major points highlighted and discussed.

You can listen to the study by clicking here

Romans 9:1-33 (NIV)
1 I speak the truth in Christ–I am not lying, my conscience confirms it in the Holy Spirit– 2 I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 3 For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, those of my own race, 4 the people of Israel. Theirs is the adoption as sons; theirs the divine glory, the covenants, the receiving of the law, the temple worship and the promises. 5 Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of Christ, who is God over all, forever praised! Amen. 6 It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. 7 Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.” 8 In other words, it is not the natural children who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring. 9 For this was how the promise was stated: “At the appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son.” 10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children had one and the same father, our father Isaac. 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad–in order that God’s purpose in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls–she was told, “The older will serve the younger.” 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.” 14 What then shall we say? Is God unjust? Not at all! 15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” 16 It does not, therefore, depend on man’s desire or effort, but on God’s mercy. 17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden. 19 One of you will say to me: “Then why does God still blame us? For who resists his will?” 20 But who are you, O man, to talk back to God? “Shall what is formed say to him who formed it, ‘Why did you make me like this?'” 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for noble purposes and some for common use? 22 What if God, choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience the objects of his wrath–prepared for destruction? 23 What if he did this to make the riches of his glory known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory– 24 even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? 25 As he says in Hosea: “I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people; and I will call her ‘my loved one’ who is not my loved one,” 26 and, “It will happen that in the very place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ they will be called ‘sons of the living God.'” 27 Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea, only the remnant will be saved. 28 For the Lord will carry out his sentence on earth with speed and finality.” 29 It is just as Isaiah said previously: “Unless the Lord Almighty had left us descendants, we would have become like Sodom, we would have been like Gomorrah.” 30 What then shall we say? That the Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained it, a righteousness that is by faith; 31 but Israel, who pursued a law of righteousness, has not attained it. 32 Why not? Because they pursued it not by faith but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the “stumbling stone.” 33 As it is written: “See, I lay in Zion a stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall, and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame.”

Romans 9:1-6

Paul starts out Chapter 9 by expressing the depth of his concern for his Jewish brothers and sisters by saying that he would take their punishment if that would save them. While the only one who can save us is Christ, Paul showed the depth of his sincerely love in the statement. He was willing to sacrifice so others would be saved.

Romans 9:7-13

Romans 9:7 begins a discussion on descendancy. Paul looks back into history and demonstrates the promises of God never included all the physical descendants of Abraham. Ismael was a descendant of Abraham and yet was not included in the covenant promise, only Isaac was. When Jacob and Esau were born as twins to Isaac, one was chosen as a participant in the covenant line and one was excluded. God chose Jacob as the heir to the promise, and rejected Esau. Paul is making the point that the idea of “Israel” has never just meant the physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jocob.

Romans 9:14-23

In these verses we see a discussion on the sovereignty of God. Is it fair that God chose Jacob and not Esau? The God revealed in the Old Testament is a Sovereign God. He acted freely, without His actions being limited by what mere humans might do. And among His freedoms is the freedom to: Have mercy on whom I have mercy . . . and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.

This is really hard for some people to deal with. But what I think is important to understand that God’s sovereignty is not dealing with free will. For example, the Bible talks both of God hardening Pharaoh’s heart, and of Pharaoh hardening his own heart. God did not, in exercising His choice, violate the freedom of choice of His creatures. God did not force Pharaoh to do anything he would not have freely chosen to do.

I believe it works like this. There are two groups of people. Objects of His mercy and objects of His wrath. Which group a person belongs to is a matter of our own choice. We choose to accept Jesus or we choose to reject Jesus.

Yet however we interpret its implication, it is clear that Paul argued from his conviction that God is sovereign. God is free to act, and has acted in history as He chose to act. And God as God has that right!

Romans 9:24-33

Going back to the theme Paul started earlier, that never in history has “Israel” included all the physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Paul makes two points:

First, the Old Testament has always taught that Gentiles would be saved:

Romans 9:24-26
24 even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles? 25 As he says in Hosea: “I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people; and I will call her ‘my loved one’ who is not my loved one,” 26 and, “It will happen that in the very place where it was said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ they will be called ‘sons of the living God.'”

Second, the Old Testament has always taught that only a remnant (a part and not the whole nation) of Israel will be saved

Romans 9:27-29
27 Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: “Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea, only the remnant will be saved. 28 For the Lord will carry out his sentence on earth with speed and finality.” 29 It is just as Isaiah said previously: “Unless the Lord Almighty had left us descendants, we would have become like Sodom, we would have been like Gomorrah.”

So Paul’s teaching on salvation by faith is actually in complete harmony with the Old Testament, and does not suggest that God is unfaithful! It is just that “faith” has become the key to bringing in the Gentiles, and to separating the spiritual remnant from the merely physical descendants of Abraham.

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